P E D A G O G Y
Links to CLASSIC TEXTS
note about study guides: Glenco (McGraw Hill), SparkNotes, and Shmoop
tend to be the best for students as they provide some basic background
on the author and his or her times as well as a myriad of activities that
involve critical thinking, not just regurgitating plot. The Great Books
Foundation guides are also good. Note: Schmoop does a good job, but you
have to wade through the saracasm.
Farm by George Orwell. A story of oppression and corruption
in the barnyard. "All animals are created equal, but some are more
equal than others."
Foundation Series by Isaac Asimov. Winner of
many Hugo Awards. It tries to do for science fiction what Gibbons'
epic, The Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire, did for history.
by Mary Shelley. Written on a bet, this is the original Halloween story.
The novel discusses morality in the time of technology (when technology
was in its infancy).
Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757
by James Fenimore Cooper is a novel set during the French and Indian War
in the wilderness of New York focusing on the last members of a Native
Scarlet Pimpernel by Baroness Orczy
tells the tale of a British spy trying to save French royals from certain
death during the French Revolution.
Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson
can be seen as the ultimate tale of addiction alongside man's ability
to be both evil and good.
of Pudd'in Head Wilson by Mark Twain is a pre-Civil War critique
of society's obsession with race while examining nature vs. nurture. It
involves a court case that is first to use forensics to solve a crime.
of the Worlds
by H.G. Wells offers a look at what an alien invasion might look like
and has spawned numerous movies and one famous radio play. This work has
never been out of print. Wells, like Jules Verne, predicted many advances
by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons is one of the most commonly found graphic
novels in the classroom and it seems one of the things that attracts academics
is its complicated literary format. Named one of Time Magazines Top
100 Novels of the Twentieth Century.
Art of Persuasion
Both Sides of the Story by Shmoop (CC).
Can my Essay be in First Person? by Shmoop (CC).
How to avoid repetition in an essay by Shmoop (CC).
to Get your Ideas to Spread
How to identify ethos, logos, and pathos by Shmoop (CC).
How to write an Argument Essay by Shmoop. Their CC videos can be goofy, but they get the idea across.
How to write a literary reserach paper by Ways and How
How to write a killer thesis Statement by Shmoop (CC).
Outlining by Shmo0p (CC).
Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences by Shmoop (CC).
Plagiarism by Shmoop (CC).
Run-on Sentences by Shmoop (CC).
Sentence Fragments by Shmoop (CC).
Subject/verb agreement by Shmoop (CC).
Synthesizing Information by GCFLearnFree.org (CC).
Impact of Persuasion
Thesis statement vs topic sentence by Shmoop (CC).
THUNK 106: The Toulmin Method of Argumentation by THUNK (CC).
Top 10 Essay Writing Don'ts by Shmoop (CC).
Transitions by Shmoop (CC).
Using Citations Effectively by Shmoop (CC).
What not to do in an introduction by Shmoop (CC).
What not to do in a conclusion by Shmoop (CC).
Writing a Killer Conclusion by Shmoop (CC).
Links for ETHOS, PATHOS, and LOGOS
How to write a rhetorical analysis video: Writing Center: Rhetorical Analysis
As I tell my students, the greatest practioners of rhetoric are advertisers. Their whole job is to convince you to part with your money. One of the best shows in recent television history is Mad Men and they present some really good lessons in ethos, pathos, logos.
to Aristotle, the best speakers (or writers) utilize all three appeals
when it comes to arguments, but if you really want to move people
to action (such as opening their wallets), you must resort to pathos
(the basest form of argumentation) -- think about those horrible "Save
the abused animal" commercial.
Art of Rhetoric: Persuasive Techniques in Advertising
Logorama and academy award winning short using nothing but company logos. What does this say about consumerism?
Budweiser Superbowl 2015 Commercial with a rhetorical analysis of Budweiser's "lost puppy" commercial. We discuss the use of rhetorical strategies and appeals to ethos, pathos, and logos in a close reading of the film.
start off with a presentation of ethos, pathos, and logos
in "The Man Your Man Could Smell Like"
Now it's your turn. How does Old Spice use ethos, pathos, and logos in the next commercial?
Before moving on let's take a look at how logical fallacies are used in advertising, politics, and popular at the Logical Fallacies Project, including slippery slope, red herring, non sequitur, post hoc, bandwagon, ad hominem, false authority, hasty generalization.
logical fallacy is . . . is a website that offers a great handout
and some interactive examples. This shows that there are quite a few different
kinds of fallacies.
This prezi project on Logical Fallacies within Advertising points out some fallacies in the Old Spice commercial above.
a further look at logical fallacies as explained in
"You're Using Fallacies and You Don't Even Know It: Part One",
featuring slippery slope, post hoc, appeal to authority, and bandwagon.
Some of the commercials have bee disabled, so I've linked them here:
Fallacies | Idea Channel
More Fallacies | Idea Channel
An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments combines two of my favorite things - comics and rhetoric. A fun look at fallacies that tries to make understanding them a bit easier.
Let's look at the Mad Men expert, Don Draper, and how he explains his use of ethos, pathos, and logos in advertising.
why choose one cigarette, toothpaste, or cereal over another? Cigarettes
are what is known as a parity product--a product that is functionally
equivalent to its competitiors.
Q) All successful ads combine all three elements of argument--ethos, pathos and logos--to sell products. Can you identify how each ad uses these three elements of appeal?
Q) What logical fallacies can you spot?
Teaching rhetoric with McDonalds. Here's a look at ethos:
and a modern remake
Q) How does McDonald's use ethos in these commercials? (Wanna be an athlete like Larry Bird, Michael Jordan, Dwight Howard, or LeBron James - eat McDonald's)
Q) Why did McDonald's create the same commercial with different athletes? (Appeal to younger generation audience)
You don't even need to understand the words to get what's going on in this commercial:
Q) How does McDonald's use pathos in this commercial? (Appeals to the baser emotion of greed - children want all the cups)
Q) How does McDonald's use logos in this commercial? (McDonald's has healthy food - apples. It's convenient.)
Two Japanese McGrand commercials. The first was created via a Project Runway segment:
The second is designed for young men?
Q) How does McDonald's use ethos in these commercials? (Wanna be a skinny model? Eat McDonald's).
And now for something completely different, especially if you are coulrophobic. The Happy Meal
READ anything including magazines, newspapers, comic books, graphic novels, fiction and non-fiction full-length books.
READ every genre, including sci-fi, fantasy, mystery, poetry, thriller, essay anthologies, historical fiction, short story collections, literary fiction and non-fiction and every medium AND that includes comics.
READING FOR A LIFETIME: Dr. Eliot's Five Foot Shelf
For More READING Lists and Links to History and Favorite authors click on >Links
For Comic READING sites and lists click on >Graphic Novels for the College Classroom
WRITING For the College Classroom
Read-Think-b4-u-write. blogspot.com has lots of writing prompts, grammar tips and exercises. It also contains posts about rhetoric, careers, advertising, comics, and reading.
A Curious Question offers hundreds of prompts to jumpstart your journaling. Remember, practice makes perfect and that includes writing, the more you write the better you'll get.
The Impotence of Proofreading - hysterical.
The problem with English grammar is that most rules have exceptions. In this electronic age, grammar standards are changing to keep pace with changing technology. The more I read, the more I see author's breaking language rules, changes which may now be conventions. What's a writer to do? Avoid some of the most common grammar errors (see a few tips below).
I hesitate devoting large segments of class time to grammar because it often leads to that "deer in the headlights" look that means my students have just gone into the "fear or flight" mode. College students should be familiar with the basics, and often are, however they don't know what your talking about when you use phrases like "faulty parallelism," "dangling modifier," or "verb agreement." One suggestion I give students is to buy a good, cheap "Handbook for Writers." They include basic grammar and can be found in any used bookstore. Then as a teacher you need to show them how to use the index.
For students who want to write beyond the basics, I recommend William Strunk Jr. and E.B. White's Elements of Style, it is well worth studying. It's super shortthe copy I have is only 85 pagesand worth the read.
Here's a few basic grammar tips for the things I see most often:
Avoid overuse of the verb "to be" (is, was, were, are, been,
Avoid starting sentences with "It," "There is," or "There was." When you do it sounds like amateur hour, especially when you use them over and over, then it just gets annoying.
Limit common dialect and contractions to dialogue, and then use sparingly.
Do NOT use text messaging language in papers. While this form of verbal short hand is good for taking notes, it is not appropriate in any college level paper or manuscript.
Avoid the overuse of "I". Many students have been taught by their high school teachers to avoid I because it leads to too much personal opinion. In college, on the other hand, professors strive towards informed personal opinions. The problem lies in finding ten "I"s on a single page, or a paper where every other sentence starts with "I did this" or "I believe that." Again, repetition just gets annoying.
And the first of my personal favorites (meaning, "the hardest error for me to break"): avoid Yoda speak, i.e. the pointy-eared little monk from Star Wars. "Tax returns they have been filed," should be "Filed tax returns." "The newspaper was taken by the dog," should be, "The dog took the newspaper." "Plans to marry," should be, "Marriage plans."
Favorite bad habit number two (yes, that's mine): Contrary to purple pens, adjectives and adverbs often do not strengthen verbs, they weaken them.
held tightly = gripped, clutched
froze over completely = froze
wrapped tightly = bundled
pull energetically = jerk
moved slowly = sauntered
sat heavily = plopped
desperately wanted = desired
Which leads to favorite bad habit no. 3: When the crew of the USS Enterprise decided to "Boldy go where no man has gone before" they split their infinitives. They should have decided “To go boldly where no man has gone before." A split infinitive occurs when an adverb or adverbial phrase is placed between to and the verb.
School House ROCK
I use "School House Rock" as a refresher and then ask students to define the grammar term and provide an example in a complete sentence. These short videos are memorable and fun, but BEWARE, you'll be singing "Conjunction Junction, what's your function" for the rest of the day.
Online Grammar RESOURCES
Cengage Learning - These grammar quizzes can be emailed to the instructor and cover everything from subjects and verbs in simple sentences to capitalization and punctuation. Quizzes take anywhere from three to five minutes to complete and there are about 100 to choose from. I often use as an extra credit possibility.
Identifying Sentence Errors - SAT Practice Test - Sentences ask students to identify specific errors. There is also a "show me the answer" option with an explanation of the error.
How and why to use Whom in a sentence - he=who, him=whom
How to use an apostrophe - "The soldiers' rifles were no match for Bob's amazing lightning pants."
How to use a semicolon - the most feared punctuation on earth.
How to use "literally" - without exaggeration.
Ten Words you need to stop misspelling - "alot is not a word, you don't write alittle or abunch..."
When to use i.e. in a sentence - "The best way to take out a unicorn is with a claymore, i.e. a directional mine which explodes shrapnel into a designated kill zone."
Online Writing LABS
Owl at Purdue - A great site for basic grammar and citation questions. From practice questions to tips for avoiding plagiarism and writing a résumé, there is something here for every college student.
Hypergrammar - University of Ottawa Writing Centre - Lots of basic grammar pages with lots of good examples, but they use British spellings . . . like centre rather than center, so beware.